@Dusklicious Some adjustments to your list plus additions of my own with my commentary. ....
If I'm being honest some of these ideas don't impress me, particularly when it comes to the item changes. Also I should note here that I tailored mine specifically so it could fit in one moderately sized patch cycle's worth of balance. (...ed your post for the sake of brevity)Cauterize doesn't need a buff. With Rejuvenate, it wouldn't scale perfectly, but most champs aren't going to use it. It was mostly confined to tanks even when it was too strong. Resil scaling doesn't really bother me that much. Though it could be a good indirect nerf to Atlas which works paired with a later suggestion to tone down the nerf I would want for him, plus BK is apparently really good on SEA where the servers are better, so... ok. Master Riding had its price increased for a reason. Master Riding as is, is still a very strong item late in matches to get to point very quickly and maintain pressure. Problem with Deft Hands has nothing to do with price, way I see it Deft Hands should be removed and replaced with something else, since the concept of it is only useful on 3 champs...
Atlas suggestion is ok if paired with the Resilience buff, but without it, I think .7 would be more balanced. The card is really nuts if used properly and it allows Atlas to have Barriers up very consistently. With the resilience buff though it would be fine to leave it at .8 since it would affect him.
I support most but not all of these suggestions for Barik. Bowling Ball is okay, Healing Station is fine (pair it rank 4 or 5 with rank 5 of Field Deploy on an Archi build and you should see what I mean), and Scrap should be reworked but I do question giving Barik an ammo card a bit. Ammo on turret death might be interesting, wouldn't break the game. Would be in some sense similar to the TF2 Frontier Justice's workings.
Inara's is really just an absoulte must at this point. She's the only bad tank right now, she kind of needs this.
As for Fernando's changes, I will just say, uhm... I'm not too sure about giving his fireball that much. As you say, this buff would give him 650 damage every 3 seconds, which sounds great, but the thing is that 650 can turn into almost 2000 if you line up 3 hits, every 3 seconds. This change gives me OB Flanknando vibes and it slightly concerns me.
Makoa change is okay but could warrant tweaking to prevent Half Shell from being broken in a different way. With this change Makoa would have 5 second Half Shell shields. Nerf the Barrier Reef suggestion to .8 per rank, so that 5 becomes a 6, which is fine.
Strix's rifle is fine where it is. His pistol, though, his pistol is terrible. Even with how ok it is now, rifle still better than pistol 95% of the time if not 100%. There's almost never a reason to use the pistol...
Kinessa is in a spot where a slight nerf could be warranted. This isn't the nerf I'd suggest for her, though. True Grit is too strong. Dialing it back to 75 or 80 so it rewards aim but doesn't halfway break Kinessa is good enough. 500 healing off of one shot is stupid.
Damba to me doesn't feel like he needs changes. He requires a lot of skill to play well, and is in an okay spot at higher levels and is still weaker in worse hands.
Pip is actually pretty fine. Though most of these changes would be ok ideas. Mega Potion change would negate how broken increasing the consistency of his healing would make him in high levels where people know how to play him, I don't entirely know about making Reload flat, but it seems ok. Sturdy change would help him a lot on console, so can support it since it wouldn't break him on PC either.
Io change is ok. Giving her more access to utility would flesh her out and make her have somewhat of a reason to be played over Ying. Probably not enough if anything. I'm personally happy to see her suck for once though.
Ying idea is actually a really good idea. It would help her get healing numbers and it would give her a reason to use a talent that isn't Life Exchange. Life Like would give her access to pretty solid utility in the form of more bodyblocks.
I'm not really liking most of these Jenos suggestions, most egregious is the way you'd reintroduce Celestial Touch. I think something like it SHOULD be in the game, but I'd rather see it have a hybrid scaling to avoid making Jenos being broken in combination with Raum or Yagorath and wouldn't do much for squishies. DPS changes are not necessary at all, Cosmeum change seems okay enough but see that talent still sucking, Heal changes don't really help his healing in any significant way...The way I would do a Celestial Touch re-introduction is to make it have a hybrid scaling. If you don't know what I mean, I'm saying to reallocate some max HP scaling to flat. Something like: 300 + 5% max HP. This would heal an Evie for 390 and a full armor Raum for 725 instead of 270 for Evie and 1275 for full armor Raum.
I mean okay I guess on the Furia idea, but that would be a pretty sizeable nerf to Exterminate which seems to be okay enough. Could work off-support but nobody's really tried it yet because off-supports aren't meta.
Going through all the flank ideas in one dot, Over the Moon = Tank Evie now; Buck was nerfed for a reason, though he could use something; Zhin change is okay (even if not entirely needed) though Counter may be slightly overnerfed here; Lex change is ok because he probably needs it for console though Lex is meh on PC.